Relativistic-Baryon Dark Matter Creates Dark Energy via Synchrotron Emission of Photons, Says Drexler

SILICON VALLEY, April 11, 2011 (AScribe Newswire) — An explanation for “dark energy” and for the accelerating expansion of the universe, discovered in 1998, begins in 1916 when Albert Einstein announced his General Theory of Relativity. This was followed by the publication in 1922 of solutions to Einstein’s General Relativity equation by a Russian mathematician Alexsandr Friedmann. Friedmann’s key insight was that there was no unique solution to Einstein’s equations, rather there was a whole family of solutions possible.

This family of solutions thus allowed for different cosmological models for different model universes. Following the 1998 discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe, physicists searching for an explanation ignored some of Friedmann’s astronomical assumptions and adopted a Friedmann solution as the explanation. Let us consider whether that was justified.

Friedmann’s five assumptions about the nature of his model universes were that they had the following characteristics or were (1) homogeneous (the same everywhere on a large enough scale), (2) isotropic (look the same in every direction), (3) essentially all of their matter particles are moving slowly, (4) the only force the matter particles experience is gravitation (negligible numbers of electrically charged particles), and (5) they (the model universes) should exhibit homogeneous expansion rates whether as to the entire model universe or to its component parts.

Note that electrically charged particles create forces upon one another several dozen orders of magnitude greater than gravitation-based forces. Thus if non-negligible electrically charged matter is present, it could completely overwhelm the weak gravitational forces inherent in General Relativity.

Based upon these five assumptions, Friedmann found exact solutions to the General Relativity equation and published them before his 1925 death. The 1998 discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe startled physicists who had no explanation for it. Since it was a big mystery they named it “dark energy.” Since Friedmann’s solutions to Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity related to an expanding universe, the physicists decided, without adequate analysis, to adopt a Friedmann universe-expansion solution for the explanation of the 1998 discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe.

But astronomers have looked back in time with their telescopes and have seen that the sizes of galaxies and galaxy clusters have exhibited only a negligible or minimal expansion during the past five billion years compared to the percentage expansion of the distances between galaxy clusters during that time period. This indicates a non-homogeneous expansion rate within our universe that is not compatible with Friedmann’s assumption requiring an homogeneous expansion rate for model universes and their component parts. Thus, we must conclude that Friedmann’s universe-expansion solution does not apply to our universe.

Beginning in 2002, Bell Labs-educated (under a three year fellowship) applied physicist Jerome Drexler utilized this same astronomical set of non-homogeneous-expansion-rate data in conjunction with his dark matter cosmology to find a compatible explanation for the accelerating expansion of our universe. The compatible explanation he discovered did not use either Friedmann’s solutions or the General Theory of Relativity, which rely entirely on gravitational forces. The successful results from his endeavor are reported in Chapter 21 of Drexler’s March 2008 paperback book entitled “Discovering Postmodern Cosmology” and in Chapter F of his October 2009 paperback book “Our Universe via Drexler Dark Matter.”

Drexler’s compatible explanation for the accelerating expansion of the universe begins with Hubble’s law. In 1929, Edwin Hubble announced the Hubble law that describes the observation in physical cosmology that the velocity at which various galaxy clusters are receding from Earth is proportional to their distance from Earth. Then the acceleration of the separation velocities of these galaxy clusters comes about through a phenomenon known as synchrotron emission of photons from the relativistic dark matter protons/baryons orbiting groups of galaxies within the galaxy clusters.

The Chapters 21 and F mentioned above explain that if the dark matter of the universe is comprised of relativistic protons/baryons racing through magnetic fields and around groups of galaxies in galaxy clusters, they will radiate high power levels of synchrotron emission photons, thereby reducing the relativistic mass of the galaxy clusters’ dark matter. By this means the relativistic mass of every galaxy cluster in the universe would be declining, thereby lowering the gravitational attractive forces between them. These declining cluster-to-cluster attractive forces would then lead to the accelerating separation of all the galaxy clusters and thereby to an accelerating expansion of the universe.

Calculations indicate that synchrotron emission from the Milky Way’s dark matter halo has a broad peak in the near infrared including the photon wavelength of 5 microns. Synchrotron emission from the higher energy relativistic dark matter protons/baryons orbiting groups of galaxies in galaxy clusters has a broad peak within the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and the soft X-ray regions including the photon wavelength of 5.5 nanometers. Synchrotron emission power from a particle is proportional to the particle’s energy squared.

Is the dark matter of the universe actually comprised of relativistic protons/baryons? Consider the five cosmologic explanations published in Drexler’s October 2009 dark matter cosmology book (Chapters C, F, G, H, and J mentioned below refer to Jerome Drexler’s October 2009 paperback book entitled “Our Universe via Drexler Dark Matter.”):

The only plausible explanation for the accelerating expansion of the universe, published to date, requires that the dark matter of the universe be comprised of relativistic protons/baryons (see Chapter F).

The only plausible explanation for the Big Bang satisfying the Second Law of Thermodynamics, published to date, requires that dark matter be comprised of relativistic protons/baryons (see Chapter C).

The only published plausible explanation for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray protons with energies above 60 EeV bombarding Earth’s atmosphere requires that dark matter be comprised of ultra-high-energy relativistic protons/baryons (see Chapters G and H).

The only published plausible explanation for Cosmic Inflation requires that dark matter be comprised of ultra-high-energy relativistic protons/baryons (see Chapter H).

The only published plausible explanation for the Cosmic Web requires that dark matter be comprised of relativistic protons/baryons (see Chapter J).

If these five explanations are indeed plausible, it is highly probable that the dark matter of the universe is comprised of a combination of ultra-high-energy relativistic protons and relativistic helium nuclei, which are both baryons.

With all of this evidence supporting relativistic-proton or relativistic-baryon dark matter, let us return briefly to the Friedmann universe-expansion solution to Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. Note that Friedmann’s solution is based upon five assumptions, which includes the following two: that particle matter in the universe is not electrically charged and also that particle matter is slow moving. However, Drexler’s nine years of cosmologic research leads to the conclusion that dark matter representing 83 percent of the mass of our universe is actually comprised of electrically charged protons and helium nuclei moving at relativistic velocities. Thus, our universe appears to violate two more of Friedmann’s five assumptions, which raises even more questions as to whether Friedmann’s universe-expansion solutions are applicable to our universe.