Drexler’s Dark Matter Cosmology Boosted by Study of Cosmic-Ray Proton/Helium Spectra by PAMELA

SILICON VALLEY, Calif., March 29, 2011 (AScribe Newswire) — The March 3 announcement of PAMELA’s cosmic-ray proton and helium measurements, by 60 European researchers, confirms a key 2003 prediction and key feature of Jerome Drexler’s dark matter cosmology, also known as postmodern cosmology. The researcher’s scientific paper entitled, “PAMELA Measurements of Cosmic-Ray Proton and Helium Spectra,” was published in Sciencexpress.

The European collaboration PAMELA took measurements of cosmic-ray proton and helium nuclei spectra and confirmed that neither of these two species of relativistic particles could have been accelerated by shock waves to such high energies via supernova explosions. Supernova shock acceleration of cosmic-ray particles had been the mainstream theory for many years. This leaves the big bang as the only feasible ultra-high-energy accelerating mechanism to explain the source of these ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray particles. Drexler discovered this via cosmology and astrophysics in 2002 and announced it in 2003.

In Drexler’s December 2003 book, “How Dark Matter Created Dark Energy and the Sun,” he posited that very large volumes of ultra-high-energy (UHE) relativistic protons entered the universe during the big bang. They initially formed relativistic-proton dark matter filaments then halos that created galaxies and stars over billions of years. During these billions of years, a tiny percentage of the energetic protons were ejected from their halos and filaments every day, for various reasons, to become cosmic-ray protons bombarding many star systems, including our solar system.

Part IV of Drexler’s 2003 book is entitled “Are UHE Dark Matter Protons Relics of The Big Bang? There Appears to be Support for That Theory.” Part VII of the book is entitled “Big Bang Origin of 10^20 eV Cosmic-Ray Protons Found in The Milky Way?”

In February 2007 Drexler published a scientific paper explaining why multitudinous UHE relativistic protons must have entered the universe during the big bang (http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0702/0702132.pdf). The title and abstract of the paper read as follows:

A Relativistic-Proton Dark Matter Would Be Evidence The Big Bang Probably Satisfied The Second Law Of Thermodynamics

Author: Jerome Drexler
Submitted on 15 Feb 2007

Abstract: A new research hypothesis has been developed by the author based upon finding astronomically based “cosmic constituents” of the Universe that may be created or influenced by or have a special relationship with possible dark matter candidates. He then developed a list of 14 relevant and plausible “cosmic constituents” of the Universe, which then was used to establish a list of constraints regarding the nature and characteristics of the long-sought dark matter particles. A dark matter candidate was then found that best conformed to the 14 constraints established by the “cosmic constituents.” The author then used this same dark matter candidate to provide evidence that the big bang was relativistic, had a low entropy, and therefore probably satisfied the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

The European collaboration PAMELA, of 60 scientists from Italy, Germany, Russia, and Sweden, essentially has proven that the UHE relativistic baryons (protons and helium nuclei), that are now observed as cosmic-ray baryons, must have entered the universe with high relativistic energies at the time of the big bang. Furthermore, since cosmic-ray protons with energies above 6×10^19 eV have been observed in the universe, the following cosmic-ray-energy-loss theory developed by Drexler appears to be valid.

Drexler’s cosmic-ray-energy-loss theory: The 1966 GZK cosmic-ray cut-off theory has been used by mainstream scientists to argue that Drexler’s relativistic-proton dark matter could not have survived 13.7 billion years of travel. The GZK cosmic-ray cut-off theory actually predicts that because of inelastic collisions with the cosmic microwave background (CMB), relativistic cosmic-ray protons cannot have energies higher than 6×10^19 eV, since above that energy level they would have lost energy rapidly.


However, Drexler discovered that the GZK cosmic-ray-proton energy-loss effect could be much lower for relativistic protons orbiting galaxies because of the much higher magnetic fields near galaxies than the low magnetic fields of extra-galactic space. Physics Nobel Laureate Sheldon L. Glashow, et al, of Harvard inspired Drexler’s discovery of this magnetic-field effect via Glashow’s scientific paper written in 1998 entitled, “Evading the GZK Cosmic-Ray Cutoff,” which contained no mention of magnetic fields. The abstract of the paper reads as follows.

“Explanations of the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are severely constrained by the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin [GZK] effect, which limits their propagation over cosmological distances. We argue that possible departures from strict Lorentz invariance, too small to have been detected otherwise, can affect elementary-particle kinematics so as to suppress or forbid inelastic collisions of cosmic-ray nucleons with background photons. Thereby can the GZK cutoff be relaxed or removed.”

Thus, a relativistic proton racing across magnetic field lines of some minimum strength near a galaxy could be departing from strict Lorentz invariance since the proton’s orthogonal acceleration would be determined by its vector direction of motion relative to the magnetic field lines. Since the galactic magnetic field strength of the Milky Way is about 2000 times stronger than the magnetic field of extra-galactic space, the much higher galactic magnetic field would substantially increase the departure from Lorentz invariance near galaxies. Thus, we might expect that some UHE relativistic protons orbiting galaxies might evade the GZK cutoff while essentially all UHE relativistic protons racing through extra-galactic space would be subjected to it to some extent. Thus, the GZK effect does not appear to place any constraints on relativistic-baryon dark matter cosmology.