Dark Matter Emits Photons; Astronomers See Red Dark Matter Halos and Galaxy Clusters’ EUV/Soft X-Rays

SILICON VALLEY, April 26, 2011 (AScribe Newswire) — This is the fourth anniversary of a scientific article entitled “Dual-Dark-Matter Phenomenon Discovered: Our Galaxy Cluster May Emit Both Extreme Ultraviolet [EUV] and Infrared Light.” It was written by Bell Labs-educated inventor and applied physicist Jerome Drexler and was distributed widely in an AScribe Newswire on April 16, 2007. Today, it is possible to announce that astronomical data confirms that the dark matter of the universe emits detectable photons.

This conclusion is based upon astronomical research reported in five scientific papers by three different groups of astronomers in the US and Europe, which matched Drexler’s April 2007 predictions for photon emission from dark matter at two specific photon wavelengths. Today’s dark-matter-photon-emission report represents a serious challenge to both the Lambda CDM dark matter theory and to the MOND modified-gravitational theory that try to account for the mysterious movements of galaxies in clusters and stars in galaxies.

The complete 2007 scientific article, which is available toward the end of this report, contained the following paragraph that predicts that the relativistic-proton dark matter orbiting the Milky Way and groups of galaxies within the Local Group galaxy cluster would exhibit synchrotron emission of photons in certain wavelength ranges, which should be detectable. That is, the article had the audacity to state unequivocally that orbiting dark matter particles emit detectable photons and thus are not completely dark as the vast majority of cosmology-physicists argue. Drexler’s 2007 article also provided astronomers with the photon wavelengths involved so they could find and share in the cosmological treasure hunt. The article’s predictive paragraph reads as follows:

“Calculations indicate that the synchrotron radiation power from the Milky Way’s dark matter halo should have a broad peak in the infrared that includes the wavelength of 5 microns and that radiation power from the Local Group galaxy cluster should have an EUV or soft X-ray broad peak that includes the wavelength of 5.5 nanometers.”

(Note that in the above paragraph that 5 micron photons are considered to be in the “near-infrared,” that EUV stands for “extreme ultraviolet,” and that the Local Group galaxy cluster includes our Milky Way galaxy.)

Also, it should be noted that although Drexler did not calculate the photon emission wavelengths until early 2007, he clearly posited synchrotron emission from dark matter halos in his Dec. 15, 2003 book, “How Dark Matter Created Dark Energy and the Sun” and in his April 22, 2005 19-page scientific paper, “Identifying Dark Matter through the Constraints Imposed by Fourteen Astronomically Based ‘Cosmic Constituents.’” (http://arxiv.org/ftp/astro-ph/papers/0504/0504512.pdf)

Astronomical research in Scandinavia led to a scientific paper on August 6, 2007 (see the abstract and link to the entire paper) entitled, “Red Halos of Galaxies – Reservoirs of Baryonic Dark Matter?” Drexler did not discover this paper until early 2010. He decided at that time not to announce the success of his photon-wavelength prediction for dark matter halos until a subsequent astronomical research paper confirmed the results of the one published in August 2007.

That finally occurred on February 3, 2011, which led to the announcement in this report of the Red Halo’s discovery and Drexler’s 2007 photon-wavelength-predictions. The February 2011 scientific paper’s abstract and link to the complete paper are shown below, following the August 2007 paper’s abstract and link. The 2011 paper is entitled, “Red halos and extragalactic background light.”

The success of Drexler’s Red Halo photon-wavelength prediction strongly supports his relativistic-baryon dark matter theory and his “postmodern cosmology” theory. The strength of this support is further enhanced by a collection of three recent astronomical research papers providing substantial evidence that the synchrotron radiation power from the dark matter of the Local Group galaxy cluster possesses an EUV/soft X-ray broad photon-power peak that includes the photon wavelength of 5.5 nanometers, as predicted by Drexler. The titles, abstracts, and links to these three galaxy-cluster EUV/soft X-ray astronomical research papers are presented below following the two Red Halo papers.

Red Halos of Galaxies – Reservoirs of Baryonic Dark Matter?

Authors: E. Zackrisson, N. Bergvall, C. Flynn, G. Ostlin, G. Micheva, B. Caldwell (Submitted on 6 Aug 2007)

Abstract: Deep optical/near-IR surface photometry of galaxies outside the Local Group have revealed faint and very red halos around objects as diverse as disk galaxies and starbursting dwarf galaxies. The colours of these structures are too extreme to be reconciled with stellar populations similar to those seen in the stellar halos of the Milky Way or M31, and alternative explanations like dust reddening, high metallicities or nebular emission are also disfavoured. A stellar population obeying an extremely bottom-heavy initial mass function (IMF), is on the other hand consistent with all available data. Because of its high mass-to-light ratio, such a population would effectively behave as baryonic dark matter and could account for some of the baryons still missing in the low-redshift Universe. Here, we give an overview of current red halo detections, alternative explanations for the origin of the red colours and ongoing searches for red halos around types of galaxies for which this phenomenon has not yet been reported. A number of potential tests of the bottom-heavy IMF hypothesis are also discussed. (http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0708/0708.0762v1.pdf)

Red halos and extragalactic background light

Authors: E. Zackrisson, G. Micheva (Submitted on 3 Feb 2011)

Abstract: Deep surface photometry of disk galaxies at optical and near-IR wavelengths have revealed faint halos with colours much too red to be reconciled with the resolved stellar populations detected in the halos of the Milky Way or M31. Alternative scenarios involving high metallicities, nebular emission or large amounts of dust in these halos are also disfavoured. Here, we argue that extinction of the optical extragalactic background light in the halos of these galaxies may possibly be responsible for the reported colour anomalies. We also discuss how an independent measurement of the optical extragalactic background light might be accomplished by combining direct star counts with surface photometry for a single nearby galaxy. (http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/1102/1102.0793v1.pdf)

The three galaxy-cluster EUV/soft X-ray astronomical research papers mentioned above are presented here:

Soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet excess emission from clusters of galaxies

Authors: F. Durret, J.S. Kaastra, J. Nevalainen, T. Ohashi, N. Werner (Submitted on 7 Jan 2008)

Abstract: An excess over the extrapolation to the extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray ranges of the thermal emission from the hot intracluster medium has been detected in a number of clusters of galaxies. We briefly present each of the satellites (EUVE, ROSAT PSPC and BeppoSAX, and presently XMM-Newton, Chandra and Suzaku) and their corresponding instrumental issues, which are responsible for the fact that this soft excess remains controversial in a number of cases. We then review the evidence for this soft X-ray excess and discuss the possible mechanisms (thermal and non-thermal) which could be responsible for this emission. (http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0801/0801.0977v1.pdf)

The diffuse soft excess emission in the Coma cluster from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey

Authors: Max Bonamente, Richard Lieu, Esra Bulbul (Submitted on 17 Mar 2009)

Abstract: RASS data near the North Galactic Pole was analyzed in order to study the large-scale distribution of soft X-ray emission from the Coma cluster. These RASS data constitute the only available X-ray observations of Coma that feature an in situ — temporally and spatially contiguous — background, with unlimited and continuous radial coverage. These unique characteristics of the RASS data are used to deliver a final assessment on whether the soft excess previously detected in the Coma cluster is due to background subtraction errors, or not. This paper confirms the presence of soft X-ray excess associated with Coma, and reports the detection of 1/4 keV band excess out to 5 Mpc from the cluster center, the largest soft excess halo discovered to date. We propose that the emission is related to filaments that converge towards Coma, and generated either by non-thermal radiation caused by accretion shocks, or by thermal emission from the filaments themselves. (http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0903/0903.3067v1.pdf)

On the DM interpretation of the origin of non-thermal phenomena in galaxy clusters

Authors: S. Colafrancesco, R. Lieu, P. Marchegiani, M. Pato, L. Pieri (Submitted on 8 Apr 2010)

Abstract: (Abridged) We study the predictions of various annihilating Dark Matter (DM) models in order to interpret the origin of non-thermal phenomena in galaxy clusters. We consider three neutralino DM models with light (9 GeV), intermediate (60 GeV) and high (500 GeV) mass. The secondary particles created by neutralino annihilation produce a multi-frequency Spectral Energy Distribution (SED), as well as heating of the intracluster gas, that are tested against the observations available for the Coma cluster. The DM produced SEDs are normalized to the Coma radio halo spectrum. We find that it is not possible to interpret all non-thermal phenomena observed in Coma in terms of DM annihilation. The DM model with 9 GeV mass produces too small power at all frequencies, while the DM model with 500 GeV produces a large excess power at all frequencies. The DM model with 60 GeV composition is consistent with the HXR and gamma-ray data but fails to reproduce the EUV and soft X-ray data. The DM model with 60 GeV composition is always below the observed fluxes. The radio halo spectrum of Coma is well fitted only in the or light and intermediate mass DM models. The heating produced by DM annihilation in the center of Coma is always larger than the intracluster gas cooling rate for an NFW DM density profile and it is substantially smaller than the cooling rate only for a cored DM density profile in DM model with 9 GeV. We conclude that the possibility of interpreting the origin of non-thermal phenomena in galaxy clusters with DM annihilation models requires a low neutralino mass and a cored DM density profile. If we then consider the multimessenger constraints to the neutralino annihilation cross-section, it turns out that such scenario would also be excluded unless we introduce a substantial boost factor due to the presence of DM substructures. (http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/1004/1004.1286v1.pdf)

What other evidence has been uncovered during the past nine years by Drexler to convince us that relativistic-baryon dark matter is the dark matter of the universe (note that more than 80 percent of all baryons are protons). So far, relativistic-baryon dark matter has solved over 30 cosmologic mysteries as described in Drexler’s four-volume series of astrophysics-cosmology books and his recent newswire articles and reports. These 30 solved mysteries include very significant enigmas such as, (1) dark energy and the accelerating expansion of the universe, (2) how the big bang satisfied the Second Law of Thermodynamics, (3) how ultra-high-energy cosmic rays obtained their energy, and (4) how relativistic-baryon dark matter utilizes the cosmic web to create galaxy clusters and galaxies. The 30 cosmologic mysteries are all explained by means of Drexler’s relativistic-baryon dark matter cosmology, also known as “postmodern cosmology.”

Drexler’s April 16, 2007 newswire article, also available here, is reprinted below:

Dual-Dark-Matter Phenomenon Discovered: Our Galaxy Cluster May Emit Both Extreme Ultraviolet and Infrared Light

LOS ALTOS HILLS, Calif., April 16, 2007 (AScribe Newswire) — Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) is difficult to detect from space using an Earth-based telescope because the Earth’s atmosphere scatters/absorbs a very large percentage of such light passing through it.

That is, even if the so-called dark matter of the universe is luminous in the EUV or UV, it still could appear dark through a telescope on the earth’s surface.

Therefore, although astronomers, astrophysicists, and cosmologists have assumed for the past 20 years that the dark matter of the universe is cold, passive, and absolutely dark it actually may be hot, active, and emit EUV or UV light or even soft X-rays.

The possibility of detection of extreme ultraviolet or ultraviolet photons from dark matter progressed in 2006 when Russia announced it will launch an ultraviolet astronomical observatory in 2010 having a 1.7 meter main mirror.

In the announcement, the project manager, Professor Boris Shustov, is quoted as saying: “One should particularly emphasize the observatory’s role in detecting the so-called dark matter of the Universe and unlocking its secrets because such dark matter can only be seen by large ultraviolet telescopes.”

This Russian news came 30 months after Jerome Drexler’s December 2003 astrophysics book had disclosed that his dark matter model comprises relativistic protons that emit synchrotron radiation and that the dark matter of the Local Group galaxy cluster, which includes the Milky Way, is linked to EUV photons. These facts, as clues, eventually led to Drexler’s discovery of the Dual-dark-matter phenomenon.

The announcement by Professor Shustov, Director of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, was very encouraging to Drexler that Shustov believed dark matter was luminous in the ultraviolet at a level that could be detected and measured by a 1.7 meter satellite-borne ultraviolet telescope. Drexler valued this information.

After Drexler publicized the Russian announcement, he received emails from a US professor that linked Drexler’s relativistic-proton dark matter model, as a source of EUV synchrotron radiation, to the long-observed EUV radiation from galaxy clusters.

The professor’s emails provided the following significant information: “An extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray excess has been detected from clusters of galaxies more than ten years ago by EUVE and ROSAT. Today the XMM-Newton satellite continues the research in this exciting field.” And, “In this case the EUV and soft X-ray excess from clusters, which is by now a well established phenomenon, could be used to support your [dark matter] model.” EUV and soft X-ray photon emission from galaxy clusters has been the subject of about 20 scientific papers during the past ten years. None had been linked to dark matter.

Drexler posits that the relativistic-proton dark matter is probably the leading candidate for such a source of EUV and soft X-ray photon emission from galaxy clusters since its synchrotron radiation provides a very plausible explanation for the observed phenomena.

Dark matter’s relativistic protons in a cluster of galaxies are a much more likely source of EUV or soft X-ray synchrotron radiation than dark matter’s relativistic protons in the halo of a spiral galaxy, like the Milky Way. There are three reasons for this:

A proton’s synchrotron radiation power is proportional to the square of its energy, the wavelength of the peak radiation power is inversely proportional to the square of the protons’ energy, and the energies of the dark matter protons in the Local Group galaxy cluster are estimated at 30 times greater than the proton energies in the Milky Way’s halo.

Thus, dark matter protons in the Local Group galaxy cluster should radiate synchrotron radiation power about 900 times higher, at a wavelength 900 times smaller, than from protons in the Milky Way’s dark matter halo.

Calculations indicate that the synchrotron radiation power from the Milky Way’s dark matter halo should have a broad peak in the infrared that includes the wavelength of 5 microns and that radiation power from the Local Group galaxy cluster should have an EUV or soft X-ray broad peak that includes the wavelength of 5.5 nanometers.

Drexler’s Dual-dark-matter phenomenon could be tested by NASA in 2008 when the Hubble telescope’s EUV/UV sensitivity is increased by a factor of 30. The detection of EUV or soft X-rays from the dark matter in the Local Group galaxy cluster plus their absence from the Milky Way’s halo could confirm Drexler’s Dual-dark-matter discovery.